Resources to Understand the Wage Gap

The following resources will help employers learn more about the wage gap and issues related to equal pay.

TRAINING AND TOOLS

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing federal laws that apply to all types of work situations, including hiring, firing, promotions, harassment, training, wages, and benefits. The EEOC also works to prevent discrimination before it occurs through outreach, education and technical assistance programs. The EEOC has issued a brief summary of federal pay discrimination laws as well as detailed (43-page) legal guidance. Call the EEOC’s Office of Legal Counsel with questions about private sector employers at (202) 663-4691, and direct questions about federal employment to EEOC attorneys at (202) 663-4599. Some helpful links include:
EEOC's Compliance Manual Chapter on Compensation Discrimination
EEOC’s Regulations on Sex Discrimination
EEOC’s Equal Pay Act Regulations
EEOC’s Equal Pay Act Regulations (Procedural)

 

Civil Rights Division of the Vermont Attorney General's Office
The Civil Rights Unit is responsible for enforcing state laws which prohibit discrimination in employment. These include laws which prohibit discrimination based on gender.  Staff can answer employer questions may be able to provide training and technical assistance.  The Attorney General’s Office does not handle discrimination claims against state government. Those discrimination claims are handled by the Vermont Human Rights Commission or the Equal Opportunity Commission.

 

Vermont Human Rights Commission
The Vermont Human Rights Commission has jurisdiction over allegations of unlawful discrimination in housing, places of public accommodation and in state employment. Staff can provide trainings throughout the state. The charge for training covers only the costs of time and materials. For more information or to set up a training, please call (802) 828-1625.

 

Vermont Commission on Women (VCW)
VCW is an independent non-partisan state commission founded in 1964 and dedicated to advancing rights and opportunities for women in Vermont.  Equal pay has been part of the work of VCW since its inception and most recently it took part in a diverse stakeholders group which discussed and debated the new equal pay law, which went into effect in January 2014. These flyers are part of a public information campaign to educate both employers and workers in Vermont about their rights and responsibilities under this new law, which includes the right to request flexible working arrangements, the first of its kind in the U.S. The flyer targeted to employers features an equal pay audit - a checklist to help employers review fair pay policy and procedures, and also case studies illustrating how Vermont businesses implement flexible working arrangements. VCW’s flyer also provides resources on wage disclosure laws, pregnant worker’s rights, lactation accommodations, anti-retaliation protection, and information concerning family and medical leave.
Read Important Workplace Laws Vermont Workers Should Know (PDF, 167 KB)
Read Important Workplace Laws Vermont Employers Should Know (PDF, 196 KB)

 

United States Department of Labor
Employers who are subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938 are required to maintain records on every employee’s age, gender, occupation, wage rate, hours worked, overtime, additions or deductions to wages and total wages paid each period. The FLSA applies to employers with at least two employees and annual sales or business of at least $500,000. This suggests that many employers have the data necessary to conduct internal wage equity analysis. Learn More about the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).  The equal pay provisions of the FLSA prohibit sex-based wage differentials between men and women employed in the same establishment who perform jobs that require equal skill, effort, and responsibility and which are performed under similar working conditions. These provisions, as well as other statutes prohibiting discrimination in employment, are enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

 

Business and Professional Women
Employers and employees can use the Business and Professional Women Foundation's Equal Pay Audit to protect your workplace against pay equity violations. Additionally, Business of Professional Women Vermont works with employers throughout the state to build successful workplaces through education, research, knowledge and policy.

 

U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau: An Employer’s Guide to Equal Pay
A Guide to Women's Equal Pay Rights is designed to help working women understand their rights under certain laws, which govern equal pay and compensation. The Women’s Bureau offers this guide to its numerous publications regarding legal protections and policies involving the interests of working women.

 

U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCCP)
The OFCCP offers employers with federal contracts step-by-step guidelines on how to comply with equal pay laws.

 

Boston: Closing the Wage Gap 
Boston Women’s Workforce Council
This report outlines the Boston Women’s Workforce Council’s recommendations to employers to help close the wage gap between working men and women.  The work of the Council inspired Vermont’s Equal Pay Compact and with permission we’ve adapted many of the materials and tools from this informative report.  The Council’s mission is to help transform Boston into the best city in the country for working women. Members of the Council represent the financial, engineering, medical, law, technology and retail sectors, and include small business owners, entrepreneurs, senior executives, as well as academic, labor and nonprofit leaders.

 

American Association of University Women’s Pay Equity Resource Kit
This organization offers research, reports and tools around pay equity issues.  This Resource Kit is a resource for education and advocacy on equal pay.

 

Vermont Department of Labor's Economic and Labor Market Information
Find Vermont-based statistics and data on employment, unemployment, industries, occupations, wages, income and more.

 

People Development Team
The People Development Team is a global training organization that offers interactive classroom workshops and e-learning modules on unconscious bias for the public and private sectors.

 

Center for Work-Life Law, Hastings College of Law
Educates the public on family responsibility discrimination and provides helpful tools and support systems for employers to incorporate work-life balance in the workplace.

 

When Work Works
When Work Works, a joint project of the Families and Work Institute (FWI) and the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), looks at workplace effectiveness and flexibility including: research, flex tips for companies and supervisors, and employer best practices that benefit both business and employees.

 

Changing Companies' Minds About Women
Barsh, Joanna & Yee, Lareina; McKinsey&Company
This article provides information for business leaders who are serious about getting more women into senior management and overcoming the invisible barriers holding them back. Strategies include ensuring that women are considered for advancement, the rigorous application of data in performance dialogues to overcome problematic mind-sets, and cultivating genuine support for women in the workforce.

 

Making Mentoring Work
Dinolfo, Sarah & Nugent, Julie S.; Catalyst;
Making Mentoring Work offers insights gathered from years of Catalyst work and expertise in this area to help organizations maximize their mentoring efforts. This mentoring guide provides data and information, assessment checklists for you to rate your efforts, and strategies to help you augment your efforts in the form of real-life Diversity & Inclusion (D&I) practices and concrete strategic tools and samples.

 

The Labor Project for Working Families
The Labor Project website provides flexible workplace and work-life balance resource guides and training material for employers.

 

National Institute for Women in Trades, Technology & Science (IWITTS)
IWITTS is a national organization that provides tools to educational institutions, police departments, employers, and women and girls themselves to help successfully integrate women into non-traditional and male-dominated careers -- such as technology and law enforcement -- via trainings, publications, products, e-strategies, and research projects.

 

Harvard Kennedy School Women and Public Policy Program
The Program is a research, policy and training center affiliated with the Harvard Kennedy School of Government that seeks to close gender gaps in economic opportunity, political participation, health and education. It provides evidence-based insights on the role of gender in shaping economic, political and social opportunities, and identifies successful interventions and measures their impact on women, men, and society.

 

WORKPLACE ASSESSMENTS AND EVALUATIONS

National Committee on Pay Equity (NCPE)
Founded in 1979, NCPE is a coalition of women's and civil rights organizations; labor unions; religious, professional, legal, and educational associations, commissions on women, state and local pay equity coalitions and individuals working to eliminate sex- and race-based wage discrimination and to achieve pay equity. NCPE's website offers many resources including research studies, articles, and charts related to the wage gap.

 

The Wage Project
The WAGE Project is a nonprofit established to end discrimination against women particular to decrease in the gender pay gap. This salary calculator determines salary ranges for various professions based on geographic location in the United States.

 

U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau: An Employer’s Guide to Equal Pay
A Guide to Women's Equal Pay Rights is designed to help working women understand their rights under certain laws, which govern equal pay and compensation.

 

Vermont Commission on Women
VCW is an independent non-partisan state commission founded in 1964 and dedicated to advancing rights and opportunities for women in Vermont.  Equal pay has been part of the work of VCW since its inception and most recently it took part in a diverse stakeholders group which discussed and debated the new equal pay law, which went into effect in January 2014. These flyers are part of a public information campaign to educate both employers and workers in Vermont about their rights and responsibilities under this new law, which includes the right to request flexible working arrangements, the first of its kind in the U.S.. The flyer targeted to employers features an equal pay audit - a checklist to help employers review fair pay policy and procedures, and also case studies illustrating how Vermont businesses implement flexible working arrangements. VCW’s flyer also provides resources on wage disclosure laws, pregnant worker’s rights, lactation accommodations, anti-retaliation protection, and information concerning family and medical leave.
Read Important Workplace Laws Vermont Workers Should Know (PDF, 167 KB)
Read Important Workplace Laws Vermont Employers Should Know (PDF, 196 KB)

 

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing federal The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing federal laws that apply to all types of work situations, including hiring, firing, promotions, harassment, training, wages, and benefits. The EEOC also works to prevent discrimination before it occurs through outreach, education and technical assistance programs. The EEOC has issued a brief summary of federal pay discrimination laws as well as detailed (43-page) legal guidance. Call the EEOC’s Office of Legal Counsel with questions about private sector employers at (202) 663-4691, and direct questions about federal employment to EEOC attorneys at (202) 663-4599. Some helpful links include:
EEOC's Compliance Manual Chapter on Compensation Discrimination
EEOC’s Regulations on Sex Discrimination
EEOC’s Equal Pay Act Regulations
EEOC’s Equal Pay Act Regulations (Procedural)

 

Boston: Closing the Wage Gap
Boston Women’s Workforce Council
This report outlines the Boston Women’s Workforce Council’s recommendations to employers to help close the wage gap between working men and women. The work of the Council inspired Vermont’s Equal Pay Compact and with permission we’ve adapted many of the materials and tools from this informative report. The Council’s mission is to help transform Boston into the best city in the country for working women. Members of the Council represent the financial, engineering, medical, law, technology and retail sectors, and include small business owners, entrepreneurs, senior executives, as well as academic, labor and nonprofit leaders.

 

Making Mentoring Work
Dinolfo, Sarah & Nugent, Julie S.; Catalyst;
Making Mentoring Work offers insights gathered from years of Catalyst work and expertise in this area to help organizations maximize their mentoring efforts. This mentoring guide provides data and information, assessment checklists for you to rate your efforts, and strategies to help you augment your efforts in the form of real-life Diversity & Inclusion (D&I) practices and concrete strategic tools and samples.

 

RESEARCH AND REPORTS

National Partnership for Women & Families
Founded in 1971 as the Women’s Legal Defense Fund, the National Partnership for Women & Families is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization.  Their Workplace Fairness Page contains information about the wage gap.

 

Vermont Commission on Women
VCW is an independent non-partisan state commission founded in 1964 and dedicated to advancing rights and opportunities for women in Vermont.  Equal pay has been part of the work of VCW since its inception and most recently it took part in a diverse stakeholders group which discussed and debated the new equal pay law, which went into effect in January 2014. These flyers are part of a public information campaign to educate both employers and workers in Vermont about their rights and responsibilities under this new law, which includes the right to request flexible working arrangements, the first of its kind in the U.S.. The flyer targeted to employers features an equal pay audit - a checklist to help employers review fair pay policy and procedures, and also case studies illustrating how Vermont businesses implement flexible working arrangements. VCW’s flyer also provides resources on wage disclosure laws, pregnant worker’s rights, lactation accommodations, anti-retaliation protection, and information concerning family and medical leave.
Read Important Workplace Laws Vermont Workers Should Know (PDF, 167 KB)
Read Important Workplace Laws Vermont Employers Should Know (PDF, 196 KB)

 

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for enforcing federal laws that apply to all types of work situations, including hiring, firing, promotions, harassment, training, wages, and benefits. The EEOC also works to prevent discrimination before it occurs through outreach, education and technical assistance programs. The EEOC has issued a brief summary of federal pay discrimination laws as well as detailed (43-page) legal guidance. Call the EEOC’s Office of Legal Counsel with questions about private sector employers at (202) 663-4691, and direct questions about federal employment to EEOC attorneys at (202) 663-4599. Some helpful links include:
EEOC's Compliance Manual Chapter on Compensation Discrimination
EEOC’s Regulations on Sex Discrimination
EEOC’s Equal Pay Act Regulations
EEOC’s Equal Pay Act Regulations (Procedural)

 

Boston: Closing the Wage Gap
Boston Women’s Workforce Council
This report outlines the Boston Women’s Workforce Council’s recommendations to employers to help close the wage gap between working men and women. The work of the Council inspired Vermont’s Equal Pay Compact and with permission we’ve adapted many of the materials and tools from this informative report. The Council’s mission is to help transform Boston into the best city in the country for working women. Members of the Council represent the financial, engineering, medical, law, technology and retail sectors, and include small business owners, entrepreneurs, senior executives, as well as academic, labor and nonprofit leaders.

 

Flexibility for Success: How Workplace Flexibility Policies Benefit All Workers and Employees
National Partnership for Women & Families
This paper addresses the needs of lower-wage workers for flexibility in the workplace. They face significant challenges, including unpredictable work schedules, inflexible work hours, no access to paid sick time, and little or no paid family leave.

 

Taking Care of Business: The Business Benefits of Paid Leave
National Partnership for Women & Families
This short report details the business benefits, including reduced absenteeism, and higher retention rates, of providing employees with paid sick days and paid family and medical leave.

 

Taking a Positive Approach to an Employee's Maternity Leave
Ryckman, Pamela; NYTimes
This article focuses on helping companies see maternity leave as a potential 'win-win,' rather than a loss or challenge to the company. In particular, challenges small businesses face when employees take maternity leave are mentioned as well as suggestions on how to deal with temporary employee vacancies and the fear that an employee will choose to stay at home after their child's birth.

 

The Sloan Center on Aging and Work at Boston College
The website provides reports and publications on research findings concentrating on aging and work, and flexible work options.

 

The Business Case for Women: Quantifying the Economic Value of Diversity
The Council of Women World Leaders hosted the Closing the Global Gender Gap: The Business Case Conference for Organizations, Politics, and Society, which brought together academics, executives, and world leaders to disseminate and analyze research that proves including women at the top levels of organizations is not only the right thing to do, it is also good business. This research compendium brings together many documents referenced at the Conference, and provides a compelling case for closing the global gender gap in organizations, politics, and society.

 

Harvard Kennedy School Women and Public Policy Program
The Program is a research, policy and training center affiliated with the Harvard Kennedy School of Government that seeks to close gender gaps in economic opportunity, political participation, health and education. It provides evidence-based insights on the role of gender in shaping economic, political and social opportunities, and identifies successful interventions and measures their impact on women, men, and society.

 

Women at the Top: How Women at the Top Elevate the Bottom Line
Subcommittee on Women; U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy
A survey of the available studies on the economic value of women in leadership positions in corporations and organizations. This report includes a summary of insights and recommendations from these studies, several examples of organizations with best practices, and suggestions for moving forward.

 

The Gender Dividend: Making the Business Case for Investing in Women
Greg Pellegrino, Sally D'Amato, and Anne Weisberg; Deloitte
This paper discusses how by acknowledging and investing in women, businesses can yield a significant return-a return known as the gender dividend. This report lays out the rationale behind why governments and organizations must look to women as key to their economic growth.

 

The Great Debate: Flexibility vs. Face Time
Beninger, Carter; Catalyst
In this report, Catalyst details why employers need to learn to trust their employees to get the job done and not be so concerned about when and where the work is completed as long as deadlines are met.

 

The New Dad: Exploring Fatherhood within a Career Context
Prof. Brad Harrington, Fred Van Deusen, and Prof. Jamie Ladge; Boston College Center for Work and Family
While gender inequity has adversely affected women in many ways in the workplace, it has also made it difficult for men to be recognized as equal contributors as parents by their employers. This study attempts to view and understand the experience of today's working fathers in their roles both as worker and parent.

 

Women Create a Sustainable Future
Kellie A. McElhaney & Sanaz Mobasseri UC Berkeley Haas School of Business
This paper sets out to identify the relationships between women board directors and corporate sustainability.

 

Families and Work Institute
FWI is a nonprofit research center. The website looks at five main research areas: workforce/workplace, parenting, education, care, and communities.

 

Center for Work-Life Law, Hastings College of Law
Educates the public on family responsibility discrimination and provides helpful tools and support systems for employers to incorporate work-life balance in the workplace.

 

Gender Equality Principles
Tools for employers to assess themselves against seven gender equality principles, including employment and compensation. Many of the resources in this listing are courtsey of the Gender Equality Principles Initiative, a public-private collaborative formed by the San Francisco Department on the Status of Women, Calvert, and Verité.

 

Link to sign up for the Vermont Equal Pay Compact